White papers

Covering categories including multicore, realtime, embedded Linux and much more, Enea's White Paper Directory is one of the best sources for technical white papers and information.

White Papers

  • Linux Real-Time Guide

    Enea’s Real Time Manual provides guidance when implementing a real-time application using Linux. The document explains areas of interest for real time system designers, including Linux scheduling models, interrupts and system calls.

  • How Enea® Element can be configured to manage a fault-tolerant pair of Polyhedra database servers

    Both Polyhedra IMDB (In-Memory Database Management System) and Polyhedra Flash DBMS can be run in fault-tolerant mode with fail-over under the control of Enea's middleware product, Element. This white paper goes into the background of how this can be done, complete with code snippets.

  • Deploy virtual network functions efficiently on COTS hardware

    Telco and networking applications are often provided as vertically integrated solutions, where a vendor optimizes the overall solution for maximum performance and optimal power efficiency. In many cases, this requires specialized hardware and software. HP Moonshot System, with its commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware, provides a standard server solution.

  • Scaling up Openembedded based projects

    Building a distribution with OE and bitbake is fairly simple and straightforward, but is it optimal for a bigger development team to have everyone working in this environment? How how does a larger company efficiently use this software bundle in larger projects, where multiple teams may be involved?

  • User-Space Device Drivers in Linux: A First Look

    Device drivers in Linux are traditionally run in kernel space, but can also be run in user space. This paper will take a look at running drivers in user space, trying to answer the questions in what degree the driver can run in user space and what can be gained from this?

  • Evaluating Linux IPC Performance

    As the number of cores increase in multicore SoC solutions, we see increased demands on effective communication inside multicore nodes and also on inter-node system-level. Also, the usage of Linux in embedded systems is increasing. New challenges arise in balancing cost and performance when selecting, integrating, and adapting mechanisms for multicore inter-process communication (IPC) in these systems.

  • High Speed User-Space Network I/O Solutions for Network Function Virtualization

    A first look at how Network Function Virtualization can achieve high speed north-south communication. This document presents performance benchmark results for a selection of recent solutions for high speed network I/O in user space host, and guest applications in a virtual machine. The paper compares the host and guest throughput performance, using state-of-the-art benchmarks and measurement methods.

  • Optimizing virtualization with KVM and NO_HZ

    NO_HZ makes it possible to minimize the frequency of the OS tick, thereby improving the real-time characteristics in Linux systems. By comparing virtualization (KVM) with and without NO_HZ, we observe that virtual environments benefit from uninterrupted execution.

  • Alternative Design Approaches Adding Real-Time Capabilities to Linux

    Open source software has a strong momentum in the telecom industry and other embedded software businesses, and in the past years Linux has become the prevalent choice for new platforms. Nevertheless, Linux users acknowledge that standard Linux does not satisfy high demands on latency and determinism, and need viable solutions to secure the required real-time performance. With an increasing number of cores in multi-core processors, new possibilities emerge to enable Linux for real-time.

  • Enabling Linux for Real-Time on Embedded Multicore Devices

    Linux has a strong momentum in the embedded software industry and has in the past years become the prevalent choice as an operating system for new platforms. However, standard Linux is designed for overall throughput rather than for real-time, and consequently needs to be modified or extended to meet high demands on latency and determinism. In parallel, advancements and trends within the semiconductor industry are driving an evolution towards manycore processors. By utilizing more flexible processor architectures, new possibilities emerge to enable real-time in Linux.

  • Simplify Distributed Systems with Frameworks from Enea Element

    Distributed systems range from simple multi-threaded applications to multi-slot chassis-based systems to networked clusters of servers. Topologies get more complex when these systems move into cloud-based environments, and more diverse when they involve machine-to-machine (or M2M) solutions.

  • Fundamentals of Multicore: Operating Systems for Telecom/Networking Applications

    This white paper provides a “tutorial like” overview of the fundamental issues that apply to multicore software operating systems implementation for the telecom/networking space.

  • Deploying Multi-Technology, Multi-Vendor Communications Platforms

    Developing and deploying communications equipment is not getting any easier.Economic and competitive pressures continue to demand that network equipment be deployed with more revenue generating functionality– faster and at a lower cost.

  • The Architectural Advantages of OSE in Telecom

    The days are long gone when a real-time operating system (RT OS) was simply a small kernel providing basic services such as task scheduling and reliable inter-task communications. Today’s real-time operating systems are expected to perform a wide variety of functions ranging from managing real-time communications to providing a reliable foundation for higher level applications.

  • Maximizing Utilization of Digital Signaling Processors

    Pressure from service providers is being exerted on telecommunications equipment manufactures (TEMs) to build the network elements that will power this major evolution in communications. The question for the TEMs is: “How do you lower the cost per channel while lowering the cost of the equipment?”

  • The Middleware Factor in Rapid Services Deployment in Next-Generation Networks

    As the migration to “all-IP” next-generation networks continues, this trend has fundamentally transformed the Service Provider (SP) landscape, presenting numerous opportunities to offer exciting new services. But with intense competition from all sides, and from new players, this has also brought challenges in agility, network operational efficiency and lifecycle management, while struggling to maintain the profitability and reliability that the SPs had achieved with legacy networks.

  • Multicore: High performance packet processing enabled with a hybrid SMP/AMP OS technology

    Moore’s law does still hold, but processor vendors are rapidly turning to use the additional transistors to create more cores on the same die instead of increasing frequency since this not only gives more chip performance but also decreases the power consumption (watt/mips).

  • Polyhedra IMDB and High-Availability

    The Polyhedra IMDB and Polyhedra Flash DBMS database systems both come with an inbuilt mechanism for setting up a hot standby configuration, with control over fail-over. This article describes how this operates, and discusses how this can be used both to provide high availability and also a means to perform field upgrades with zero downtime.

  • Changing the way Managed ATCA Platforms are Delivered to the Market

    There is no doubt the emergence of commercial off the shelf (COTS) hardware platforms, Carrier Grade Linux, and management middleware have had a significant impact on the market for next generation network equipment. By enabling Telecom Equipment Manufacturers (TEMs) to readily assemble best of breed COTS components, a ’jumpstart’ on the development of new Network Elements can be realized. But having standardized COTS building blocks is only a part of the puzzle.

  • Protocol operations in telecommunication gateways

    Gateway. It is one of the most widely used terms in the telecommunications industry. It designates a wide variety of systems or functions that enable communications between two parties that cannot be connected in a direct way either for technical, management or administrative reasons. The parties in question can be a host system and a network, two networks or two elements in the same network.

  • Closing the Service Availability Gap – Updating software in a live system without loss of service

    The ability to upgrade or patch complex system software without disrupting service is an absolute requirement in today’s highly connected world. Yet it remains one of the most elusive features for today’s high-availability middleware offerings.

  • Multi-core Applications in Telecom

    This document provides an overview of multi-core technology addressing such issues as the motivation for multi-core, and applications for multi-core in telecom. Following this, some more specifics on implementation alternatives are addressed, and these alternatives then affect the design choices for different types of telecom applications. Virtualization technology, once the domain of single CPU’s now finds some applicability in the multi-core space.

  • System level debugging: A Means to Achieve Holistic Debugging

    In a world of computers with ever increasing complexity and pervasiveness, there is an increasing need for debugging methods that can tackle system level faults, where reproducibility and observability of multiple interacting programs and subsystems can be dealt with holistically, and where in field debugging is as important as predeployment debugging.

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